Trilobites of Devonian Oklahoma, USA

last revised 28 June 2008 by S.M. Gon III

Locality: Near Clarita, Coal County, south central Oklahoma, USA

Stratigraphy: Haragan Formation and related Bois D'Arc & Frisco Formations)

Age: Early Devonian (Middle Emsian), ca 405 mya
 
The Black Cat Mountain trilobite quarry site in Coal County, Oklahoma
The Paleozoic is well-represented in Oklahoma, and the state boasts some of the most spectacular trilobites in the US. These come from Lower Devonian formations in Coal County, Oklahoma, located in the south-central region of the state. The two primary Devonian formations are the Haragan and Bois d' Arc, with soft pale limestone that yields beautiful caramel-colored trilobites resembling those from the Saint Petersburg region of Russia. Over 30 different Devonian trilobite species in about a dozen genera have been described.

The Devonian trilobites of Oklahoma are in many way similar to the trilobite assemblage found in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, due to proximal paleogeography. While on continents separated by thousands of miles today, during Devonian times, present-day Morocco was part of the northwestern continental shelf of Gondwana, and present-day Oklahoma was part of the Southern continental shelf of Euramerica. These locations were adjacent and at very similar latitudes and likely bore nearly identical marine environments. The comparable species likely share common ancestry and occupy the same or closely related genera.


 
 
Oklahoma during the Devonian
Oklahoma today

Among the most common trilobites from the Haragan are Kainops invius, as well as Paciphacops campbelli, and Huntoniatonia spp.. Very rare, but distinctive Haragan taxa include Ceratonurus sp., Dicranurus hamatus elegantus, Lobopyge consanguinea, and Breviscutellum sp.  The preservation of exoskeleton at Haragan is typically strikingly excellent, with a rich caramel brown exoskeleton contrasting against very light matrix, as in the examples below:
 



photo by Stephen Marley


photo by Stephen Marley
Kettneraspis williamsi
(Whittington 1956)
ORDER LICHIDA
Family Odontopleuridae
Ceratonurus sp
(Campbell 1977)
ORDER LICHIDA
Family Odontopleuridae
Dicranurus hamatus elegantus
(Campbell 1977)
ORDER LICHIDA
Family Odontopleuridae
Acanthopyge (Lobopyge) consanguinea
(Clarke 1894)
ORDER LICHIDA
Family Lichidae
 
photo by Stephen Marley
 
 
photo by Stephen Marley
 
photo by Stephen Marley
Reedops deckeri
Delo 1935
ORDER PHACOPIDA
Family Phacopidae
Huntoniatonia oklahomae
(Richardson 1949)
ORDER PHACOPIDA
Family Dalmanitidae
Cyphaspis carrolli
Adrain & Kloc 1997
ORDER PROETIDA
Family Aulacopleuridae
Breviscutellum sp.
(Campbell 1977)
ORDER CORYNEXOCHIDA
Family Styginidae


As is often the case in Devonian sites, the major constituent orders are Phacopida, Corynexochida (Styginidae), Proetida, and Lichida. The Oklahoma trilobite fauna is particularly rich in Phacopida, with numerous described species of Huntoniatonia, as well as multiple species and genera of phacopoids such as Kainops spp., Paciphacops spp., Viaphacops, and Reedops.  Here is a complete list of Haragan trilobite species in three formations, with taxa in comon between two of more formations shown in red.

TRILOBITA OF DEVONIAN OKLAHOMA

Haragan Formation
Bois d'Arc Formation
(Fittstown & Cravatt Members)
Frisco Formation
Order Phacopida
Suborder Phacopina
Superfamily Dalmanitoidea
Family Dalmanitidae

Huntoniatonia (H.) huntonensis
   (Ulrich & Delo 1940)

Huntoniatonia (H.) lingulifer (Ulrich & Delo 1940)
Huntoniatonia (H.) oklahomae (Richardson 1949)
Huntoniatonia (H.) purduei purduei
   (Dunbar 1919)

Huntoniatonia (H.) "new form" Campbell 1977

Odontochile? taffi (Ulrich & Delo 1940)
Superfamily Phacopoidea
Family Phacopidae
Kainops raymondi (Delo 1935)
Paciphacops (P.) campbelli

Reedops deckeri Delo 1935

Order Phacopida
Suborder Cheirurina
Family Cheiruridae
Cheirurus? sp. Campbell 1977
Suborder Phacopina
Superfamily Dalmanitoidea
Family Dalmanitidae

Huntoniatonia (H.) huntonensis
   (Ulrich & Delo 1940)

Huntoniatonia (H.) lingulifer (Ulrich & Delo 1940)

Huntoniatonia (H.) purduei fittstownensis

Huntoniatonia (H.) purduei purduei
   (Dunbar 1919)

Huntoniatonia (Prosocephalus) xylabion

   Campbell 1977

Phalangocephalus rutabulum Campbell 1977
Zlichovaspis syncrama (Campbell 1977)
Superfamily Phacopoidea
Family Phacopidae
Kainops invius Campbell 1977
Kainops raymondi
(Delo 1935)

Paciphacops (P.) birdsongensis (Delo 1940)
Viaphacops bombifrons (Hall 1961)
Order Phacopida
Suborder Phacopina
Superfamily Dalmanitoidea
Family Dalmanitidae

Odontochile ceraunus
Campbell 1977
Superfamily Phacopoidea
Family Phacopidae
Paciphacops (P.) sp. Campbell 1977
Viaphacops bombifrons (Hall 1961)
Viaphacops n.sp. Campbell 1977
Order Corynexochida
Suborder Illaenina
Family Styginidae
Breviscutellum sp. Campbell 1977
Order Corynexochida
Suborder Illaenina
Family Styginidae
Breviscutellum sp. Campbell 1977

Order Proetida
Superfamily Aulacopleuroidea
Family Brachymetopidae
Cordania falcata Whittington 1960
Family Aulacopleuridae
Cyphaspis carrolli Adrain & Kloc 1997
Maurotarion axitiosum (Campbell 1977)
Superfamily Proetoidea
Family Proetidae

Dechenellid sp. Campbell 1977
Order Proetida
Superfamily Aulacopleuroidea
Family Brachymetopidae
Cordania wessmani Adrain & Kloc 1997
Family Aulacopleuridae
Maurotarion axitiosum Campbell 1977
Otarion sp.A, Campbell 1977
Superfamily Proetoidea
Family Proetidae

Coniproetus sp. Campbell 1977
Dechenellid? Campbell 1977

Order Proetida
Superfamily Aulacopleuroidea
Family Aulacopleuridae
Otarion? sp.A Campbell 1977
Superfamily Proetoidea
Family Proetidae

Proetus?
sp. Campbell 1977

Order Lichida
Superfamily Lichoidea
Family Lichidae
Acanthopyge (Lobopyge) consanguinea ["Bug-X"]
Oinochoe bigsbyi (Hall 1861)
Oinochoe coccymelum (Campbell 1977)

Terataspis? sp.
Superfamily Odontopleuroidea
Family Odontopleuridae

Ceratonurus sp. Campbell 1977
Dicranurus hamatus (Hall) elegantus
   Campbell 1977

Kettneraspis williamsi (Whittington 1956)
Laethoprusia grafhami Adrain et al 2008

Order Lichida
Superfamily Lichoidea
Family Lichidae
Superfamily Odontopleuroidea
Family Odontopleuridae

Dicranurus hamatus (Hall) elegantus
   Campbell 1977

Kettneraspis williamsi? (Whittington 1956)

Order Lichida
Superfamily Lichoidea
Family Lichidae
Terataspis? sp. Campbell 1977
NOTES: The determination of the lichid "Bug-X" as Acanthopyge (Lobopyge) consanguinea was made recently by Dr. Bruce Lieberman, Associate Professor of Geology, University of Kansas.  Acanthopyge (L.) consanguinea (Clarke 1894) was originally described from a partial specimen (pygidium and genal spines) from New York, and redescribed in Whittington 1956. The description for Laethoprusia grafhami can be found in:Adrain, J.M., B.D.E. Chatterton, and G.J. Kloc, 2008. Systematics of the Koneprusiine trilobites, with new taxa from the Silurian and Devonian of Laurentia. Journal of Paleontology 82(4):657–675. The species was described from a single, remarkable complete specimen.


Some Haragan references:

Campbell, K.S.W. (1977)  Trilobites of the Haragan, Bois d’Arc and Frisco Formations (Early Devonian), Arbuckle Mountains region, Oklahoma. Bull. Okla. Geol. Surv. 123:i-iv, 1-227

Ramsköld, L. and Werdelin, L. (1991)  The Phylogeny and Evolution of some Phacopid Trilobites. Cladistics 7:29-74 .


Black Cat Mountain Trilobites website (under construction) by Robert "Bob" Carroll and George Winters.


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